Glossary Terms: P

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 Papillomavirus
Group of viruses that can cause noncancerous wart-like tumors to grow on the surface of skin and internal organs such as the respiratory tract; can be life-threatening. 

Parent
A natural, adoptive or foster parent; an individual acting in the place of a natural or adoptive parent; an individual who is legally responsible for the child; a guardian; or a surrogate parent.

 Parent Consent
Special education term used by IDEA that states the parent has been fully informed in his or her native language or other mode of communication of all the information about the action for which the parent is giving consent and that the parent understands and agrees in writing to that action.

Parent-Infant Program
A program of parent education and infant/toddler intervention which stresses early exposure to language and attention to developmental processes that enhance the learning of language. Some programs include early exposure to amplification and the use of hearing aids to stimulate the auditory channel.

 Parosmia
Any disease or perversion of the sense of smell, especially the subjective perception of odors that do not exist.

Perception (Hearing)
Process of knowing or being aware of information through the ear.

Perilymph Fistula
Leakage of inner ear fluid to the middle ear that occurs without apparent cause or that is associated with head trauma, physical exertion, or barotrauma.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Disorders characterized by delays in several areas of development that may include socialization and communication.

Play Audiometry
A hearing test in which the audiologist teaches the child to respond with some action - a game response - whenever he hears a sound. He may learn, for instance, to put a peg in a hole, a ring on a peg, or a piece in a puzzle every time he hears a sound. The audiologist uses the audiometer, a piece of equipment that presents different tones (from low to high pitch, usually within the speech range) at varying levels of loudness to assess a child's hearing sensitivity.

Pheromones
Chemical substances secreted by an animal that elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response in another animal of the same species.

Phonology
Study of speech sounds.

Physical Therapy/Therapist (PT)
Pediatric physical therapy assists in early detection of health problems and uses a wide variety of modalities to treat disorders in the pediatric population. These therapists are specialized in the diagnosis, treatment and management of infants, children and adolescents with a variety of congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal or acquired disorders/diseases. Treatments focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance, as well as cognitive and sensory processing/integration.

Portfolio Assessment
A collection of a student's work which demonstrates achievement, efforts, and progress over a period of time.

Postlingually Deafened
Individual who becomes deaf after having acquired language.

Postsecondary Education
Formal education or training beyond high school, including college, university, vocational school and trade school.

Pragmatics
The appropriateness of language use to the situation, the speaker, and the audience in regard to logic and validity.

Prelingually Deafened
Individual who is either born deaf or who lost his or her hearing early in childhood, before acquiring language.

Presbycusis
Loss of hearing that gradually occurs because of changes in the inner or middle ear in individuals as they grow older.

Prior Written Notice
A written notice that the school must provide to the parents of a student with a disability within a reasonable timeframe if they wish to: 1) evaluate the student; 2) determine whether the student is eligible for special education services; 3) change the student’s evaluation or educational placement or educational plan (IEP); 4) refuse the parents’ request to evaluate their child or change their child’s educational plan (IEP) or placement.

Private School
There are new laws regulating the rights of students with disabilities whose parents place them in private schools. When a student is enrolled in a private school and has academic difficulties, the school is required to inform the parent and local public school district of the student’s difficulties. The district of residence may assess the student to determine if the student qualifies for special education. If they do qualify, the district of residence is responsible for writing an Individualized Education Program (see Unilateral Placement).

Profound Hearing Loss
A hearing loss of 91 decibels (dB) or greater. Individual cannot hear speech and may only hear extremely loud noises such as a chainsaw at close range.

Progress Monitoring
A scientifically based practice used to assess a student’s academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class.

Progressive Hearing Loss
A hearing loss which may be diagnosed as mild in a child, but which gradually worsens with age. A progressive hearing loss may or may not be present at birth.