Glossary Terms: C

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Captioning
Text display of spoken words, presented on a television or a movie screen, that allows a deaf or hard-of-hearing viewer to follow the dialogue and the action of a program simultaneously.

Carrier 
A person who has only one copy of a recessive disorder gene with a change in it. The person "carries" the changed gene but shows no symptoms of the disorder. If both parents are carriers, each child has a 1 in 4 chance of inheriting two changed genes and showing the disorder.

Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Inability to differentiate, recognize, or understand sounds; hearing and intelligence are normal.

Cerebral Palsy (CP)
A series of motor problems and physical disorders related to brain injury. CP causes uncontrollable reflex movements and muscle tightness, and may cause problems in balance and depth perception. Severe cases can result in mental retardation, seizures, or vision and hearing problems.

Certified Auditory-Verbal Therapist
A certified professional (speech-language pathologist, audiologist, or educator of the deaf) who adheres to the Auditory-Verbal philosophy.

Chemosensory Disorders
Diseases or problems associated with the sense of smell or the sense of taste.

Child with a Disability
A child who has a disability as defined in one of the 13 disability categories in IDEA and who needs special education and related services because of the disability; or a child aged 3 through 9 years who is experiencing developmental delay.

Child Find
Ongoing activities undertaken by states and local school districts to locate, identify and evaluate all children residing in a state who are suspected of having disabilities so that a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) can be made available to all eligible children.

Cholesteatoma
Accumulation of dead cells in the middle ear, caused by repeated middle ear infections.

Cochlea
Snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the organ of hearing.

Cochlear Implant
Medical device that bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve, allowing some deaf individuals to learn to hear and interpret sounds and speech.

Cognition
Thinking skills that include perception, memory, awareness, reasoning, judgment, intellect, and imagination.

Computed tomography (CT or CAT) 
A procedure for taking X-ray images from many different angles and then assembling them into a cross-section of the body. This technique is generally used to visualize bone.

Conditioned Orientation Reflex (COR)
The audiologist teaches the young child to look toward a toy that lights up or moves when the child looks toward it in response to a sound.

Conductive Hearing Loss
A form of deafness that results from a blockage of the ear canal or dysfunction of the ossicles or eardrum, usually through the build-up of fluid. Conductive hearing loss does not affect the auditory nerve and can usually be treated with antibiotics or ventilation tubes. Conductive hearing loss may be temporary or permanent.

Congenital Hearing Loss
Hearing loss present at birth or associated with the birth process, or which develops in the first few days of life.

Courses of Study
Middle and high school course work (or classes) that lead to a certain type of diploma and/or are required for post-secondary education.

Cued Speech
Method of communication that combines speech reading with a system of handshapes placed near the mouth to help deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals differentiate words that look similar on the lips (e.g., bunch vs. punch) or are hidden (e.g., gag).

Cued Speech Transliterator
A CST "cues" word for word what is being spoken, including background noises. The CST generally completes transliterating what is being said within a few seconds after the speaker finishes his or her comments.

Cumulative File
The records maintained by the local school district for any child enrolled in school. It may contain evaluations and information about a child’s disability and placement. Contains grades and results of standardized assessments. Parents have the right to inspect these files at any time.

Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)
Tools for measuring student competency and progress in the basic skill areas of reading fluency, spelling, mathematics and written language.

Cytomegalovirus (Congenital)
One group of herpes viruses that infects humans and can cause a variety of clinical symptoms, including deafness or hearing impairment; infection with the virus may be either before or after birth.